PhD Graduate Alice Hoe, PhD Candidate James Jeong, and Professor Eric Fong on Earnings of Immigrants to Canada

Alice HoePhD Graduate Alice Hoe, PhD Candidate James Jeong, and Professor Eric Fong published an article in Population Research and Policy Review. The article compares the earnings of immigrants in Canadian gateway and non-gateway cities, including differences in occupation, race, time of arrival, and language ability.

Alice Hoe obtained her PhD from the Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto in 2017 and is currently a postdoctoral visitor at York University. Her research explores issues around immigrant integration and employment quality in Canada. James Jeong is a PhD Candidate in the Sociology Department at the University of Toronto currently working on his dissertation, A Special Type of Social Control?: Explaining Victimization and Delinquent Behaviors of Immigrants and Their Children. Eric Fong is a Professor of Sociology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and he publishes in the areas of racial and ethnic residential patterns and immigration.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Fong, Eric, James Jeong, and Alice Hoe. 2015. “Earnings of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Paid Workers in Canadian Gateway and Non-gateway Metropolises.” Population Research and Policy Review, 34(2):279-305.

A growing number of immigrants are living in non-gateway metropolises. In this paper, drawing from the 2006 Canadian census, we explore and compare the earnings of immigrants in Canadian gateway and non-gateway metropolises. We differentiate entrepreneurs and paid workers in the analysis. In addition, we compare white and non-white immigrants in gateway and non-gateway metropolises. We employ an endogenous switching regression model to address the issue of the “selectivity” of immigrants settling in gateway and non-gateway metropolises. Findings show that the earnings of immigrants are always lower in gateway metropolises than in non-gateway metropolises. Separate analyses for entrepreneurs and paid workers show the same pattern. We also find that there is a significant difference in the earnings of white and non-white immigrants in gateway metropolises only, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic background. In addition, recency of arrival and language ability are not related to earnings for those working in non-gateway metropolises. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Read the full article here.