PhD Graduate Elise Maiolino on Public Gender Identity in Canadian Politics

Elise MaiolinoPhD Graduate Elise Maiolino published an article in the Canadian Review of Sociology that examines media coverage of a boxing match between Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Senator Patrick Brazeau. The article explores how politicians “restore” gender identity. Maiolino introduces the concept of “recuperative gender strategies” to demonstrate how Trudeau worked to reaffirm his masculine identity in the public eye.

Elise Maiolino obtained her PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto in 2017. Her research combines analyses of power and authority with feminist analyses of identity to understand the role of identity in Canadian politics.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Maiolino, Elise. 2015. “Political Pugilists: Recuperative Gender Strategies in Canadian Electoral Politics.” Canadian Review of Sociology, 52(2):115-133.

This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity‐boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau’s transition from “precariously masculine” to “sufficiently masculine” and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau’s suitability for Liberal Party leadership.

Read the full article here.

PhD Graduate Marie-Pier Joly on Employment Precarity and Immigration

PhD Graduate Marie-Pier Joly, in collaboration with Professor Luin Goldring (York University), published an article in Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society. Their article examines how precarious work is affected by legal immigration status and racialization. Joly and Goldring find that employment precarity is much higher for racialized non-citizens.

Marie-Pier Joly obtained her PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto in 2017. She is a postdoctoral researcher at Göttingen University studying the experiences of migrants from Muslim-majority countries.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through York University here.

Goldring, Luin and Marie-Pier Joly. 2014. “Immigration, Citizenship, and Racialization at Work: Unpacking Employment Precarity in Southwestern Ontario.” Just Labour: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society, 22:94-121.

This paper examines the relationship between precarious employment, legal status, and racialization. We conceptualize legal status to include the intersections of immigration and citizenship. Using the PEPSO survey data we operationalize three categories of legal status: Canadian born, foreign-born citizens, and foreign-born non-citizens. First we examine whether the character of precarious work varies depending on legal status, and find that it does: Citizenship by birth or naturalization reduces employment precarity across most dimensions and indicators. Next, we ask how legal status intersects with racialization to shape precarious employment. We find that employment precarity is disproportionately high for racialized non-citizens. Becoming a citizen mitigates employment precarity. Time in Canada also reduces precarity, but not for non-citizens. Foreign birth and citizenship acquisition intersect with racialization unevenly: Canadian born racialized groups exhibit higher employment precarity than racialized foreign-born citizens. Our analysis underscores the importance of including legal status in intersectional analyses of social inequality.

Read the full article here.

PhD Graduate Marie-Pier Joly and Professor Blair Wheaton on the Impact of Armed Conflict on the Mental Health of Migrants to Canada

PhD Graduate Marie-Pier Joly and Professor Blair Wheaton published an article in Society and Mental Health. The article assesses the impact of armed conflict in country of origin on mental health in migrants to Canada. Joly and Wheaton examine variation in stress to understand differences in mental health between those who experienced conflict and those who did not, as well as between men and women within each category.

Marie-Pier Joly obtained her PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto in 2017. She is a postdoctoral researcher at Göttingen University studying the experiences of migrants from Muslim-majority countries. Blair Wheaton is a Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto and his current research examines the role of neighbourhood effects on mental health outcomes.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Joly, Marie-Pier and Blair Wheaton. 2014. “The Impact of Armed Conflict in the Country of Origin on Mental Health after Migration to Canada.” Society and Mental Health, 5(2):86-105.

This article examines mental health differences among migrants who emigrated from both armed conflict countries and non–conflict countries versus native-born Canadians. We propose that the impact of armed conflict on mental health depends on defining characteristics of the conflict. Our analysis of migrants to Toronto, Canada, suggests that exposure to major intrastate conflicts have long-term impacts on depression among women and anxiety levels among men after migration. We assess the role of different stages and types of stress proliferation in explaining these differences. Postmigratory chronic stress helps explain differences in depression between migrant women who experienced conflict and both those who did not and Canadian-born women. Conversely, traumatic stress that occurred during the ongoing armed conflict at time of migration helped explain differences in anxiety between migrant men exposed to conflict and both migrant men not exposed and Canadian-born men.

Read the full article here.

PhD Graduate Alice Hoe, PhD Candidate James Jeong, and Professor Eric Fong on Earnings of Immigrants to Canada

Alice HoePhD Graduate Alice Hoe, PhD Candidate James Jeong, and Professor Eric Fong published an article in Population Research and Policy Review. The article compares the earnings of immigrants in Canadian gateway and non-gateway cities, including differences in occupation, race, time of arrival, and language ability.

Alice Hoe obtained her PhD from the Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto in 2017 and is currently a postdoctoral visitor at York University. Her research explores issues around immigrant integration and employment quality in Canada. James Jeong is a PhD Candidate in the Sociology Department at the University of Toronto currently working on his dissertation, A Special Type of Social Control?: Explaining Victimization and Delinquent Behaviors of Immigrants and Their Children. Eric Fong is a Professor of Sociology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and he publishes in the areas of racial and ethnic residential patterns and immigration.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Fong, Eric, James Jeong, and Alice Hoe. 2015. “Earnings of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Paid Workers in Canadian Gateway and Non-gateway Metropolises.” Population Research and Policy Review, 34(2):279-305.

A growing number of immigrants are living in non-gateway metropolises. In this paper, drawing from the 2006 Canadian census, we explore and compare the earnings of immigrants in Canadian gateway and non-gateway metropolises. We differentiate entrepreneurs and paid workers in the analysis. In addition, we compare white and non-white immigrants in gateway and non-gateway metropolises. We employ an endogenous switching regression model to address the issue of the “selectivity” of immigrants settling in gateway and non-gateway metropolises. Findings show that the earnings of immigrants are always lower in gateway metropolises than in non-gateway metropolises. Separate analyses for entrepreneurs and paid workers show the same pattern. We also find that there is a significant difference in the earnings of white and non-white immigrants in gateway metropolises only, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic background. In addition, recency of arrival and language ability are not related to earnings for those working in non-gateway metropolises. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Read the full article here.

Recent PhD Jonathan Koltai and Professor Scott Schieman on Stress Exposure and the SES Health Gradient

 

PhD Candidate Jonathan Koltai and Professor Scott Schieman published an article in Social Science Research arguing that there are “pockets of complexity” in the inverse association between socioeconomic status and health. The article outlines particular factors that add nuance to conventional understandings of the SES-health gradient.

Jonathan Koltai received his PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto in 2018. He is currently a postdoctoral  Researcher in Social Epidemiology at Bocconi University. The research for his dissertation examines organizational contexts of inter-role conflict and worker well-being. Scott Schieman is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on the impact of work and religion on health.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Schieman, Scott and Jonathan Koltai. 2017. “Discovering Pockets of Complexity: Socioeconomic Status, Stress Exposure, and the Nuances of the Health Gradient.” Social Science Research 63:1-18.

One of the most pervasive statements about stratification and health identifies the strong inverse relationship—or gradient—between socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health. We elaborate on the ways that the SES-based gradient in stress exposure contributes to nuances in the SES-health association. In analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, we find some evidence that the inverse association between SES and health outcomes is finely graded—but several ‘pockets of complexity’ emerge. First, education and income have different associations with health and well-being. Second, those associations depend on the outcome being assessed. Education is more influential for predicting anxiety and poor health than for depression or life dissatisfaction, while income is more influential for predicting depression and, to a lesser extent, life dissatisfaction. Third, different patterns of explanation or suppression reflect resource advantage or stress of higher status dynamics. Some impactful stressors that people encounter—especially job pressure and work-family conflict—are not neatly graded in ways that corroborate the conventional SES-health narrative. Instead, these mask the size of the overall health differences between lower versus higher SES groups. Our mapping of the SES gradient in stressors extends that story and complicates the conventional view of the association between SES and health/well-being.

Read the full article here.

 

Recent PhD Jonathan Koltai and Professor Markus Schafer on Cancer Diagnosis, Mental Health, and Social Networks

PhD Candidate Jonathan Koltai and Professor Markus Schafer published an article in Society and Mental Health that examines whether social networks moderate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on mental health among older adults. They find that larger networks are associated with lower rates of depressive symptoms among female survivors, but find little evidence that closeness or density of networks have a moderating effect.

Jonathan Koltai received his PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto in 2018. He is currently a postdoctoral  Researcher in Social Epidemiology at Bocconi University. The research for his dissertation examines organizational contexts of inter-role conflict and worker well-being. Markus Schafer is an Associate Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto St. George and his research focuses on health and aging.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Schafer, Markus H. and Johnathan Koltai. 2015. “Cancer Diagnosis and Mental Health Among Older White Adults: Moderating Role for Social Networks?” Society and Mental Health 5(3):182-202.

Cancer is a life-changing condition for many American seniors, and a growing body of literature is assessing the mental health implications of living with the disease. This article builds from the well-known buffering hypothesis with insights from recent cancer research to investigate whether social networks moderate the association between cancer and mental health for older men and women. Analyses use two waves of survey data (2005-2006 and 2011) from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 1,367), enabling us to track new diagnoses of cancer and network dynamics over time. Consistent with a stress-buffering pattern, larger and growing networks were associated with lower rates of depressive symptomology among women survivors relative to those with small and shrinking networks. There was little evidence that emotional closeness to network members or density moderated the mental health consequences of cancer among men or women.

Read the full article here.

PhD Candidate Athena Engman, Professor Shyon Baumann, and Professor Josée Johnston on Ethical Food Consumption

Athena EngmanPhD Candidate Athena Engman, Professor Shyon Baumann, and Professor Josée Johnston, in collaboration with Professor Emily Huddart-Kennedy (Washington State University), published an article in Canadian Food Studies. The article analyzes how motivations for ethical food consumption vary across demographic groups and types of food. The authors find that, in Toronto, motivations to purchase organic food often came from a desire to care for others, while motivations to purchase local food were more focused on the well-being of the community and the environment.

Athena Engman is a PhD Candidate at the University of Toronto studying epistemology, philosophy of mind, and medical sociology. Her thesis probes the experiences of organ transplant recipients. Shyon Baumann is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto Mississauga. His research focuses on questions of evaluation, legitimacy, status, cultural schemas, and inequality. Josée Johnston is also a Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto Mississauga and her general research goal is to advance knowledge in the sociological study of food and consumer culture.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the Canadian Food Studies website here.

Baumann, Shyon, Athena Engman, Emily Huddart-Kennedy, and Josée Johnston. 2017. “Organic vs. Local: Comparing Individualist and Collectivist Motivations for “Ethical” Food Consumption.” Canadian Food Studies 4(1):68-86.

We extend prior research on “ethical” food consumption by examining how motivations can vary across demographic groups and across types of ethical foods simultaneously. Based on a survey of food shoppers in Toronto, we find that parents with children under the age of 5 are most likely to report intention to purchase organic foods and to be primarily motivated by health and taste concerns. In contrast, intention to purchase local food is motivated by collectivist concerns—the environment and supporting the local economy—and is associated with educated, White, women consumers. In addition to highlighting this distinction in motivations for organic vs. local food consumption, we also argue that the predominant “individualist” and “collectivist” framing in the scholarly literature should be reformulated to accommodate an intermediate motivation. Organic food consumption is often motivated by a desire to consume for others (e.g. children) in ways that are neither straightforwardly individualist nor collectivist, but rather exemplify a caring motivation that is intermediate between the two.

Read the full article here.

 

PhD Candidate Mitchell McIvor, Professor Scott Schieman, and Professor Markus Schafer on Workplace Authority

Mitchell McivorScott ScheimanMarkus SchaferPhD Candidate Mitchell McIvor, Professor Scott Schieman, and Professor Markus Schafer published an article in Sociological Perspectives that examines whether job authority provides non-monetary rewards in the workplace. The authors argue that these rewards exist but are unequally distributed between men and women.

Mitchell McIvor will obtain his PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto St. George in 2018. He studies the relationship between university student debt in Canada and graduates’ transition to the labour market. Markus Schafer is an Associate Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto St. George and his research focuses on health and aging. Scott Schieman is a Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto St. George and his research focuses on the impact of work and religion on health.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Schieman, Scott, Schafer, Markus H. and Mitchell McIvor. 2013. “The Rewards of Authority in the Workplace: Do Gender and Age Matter?” Sociological Perspectives 56(1):75-96.

Authority in the workplace has its benefits. It is well-established that job authority generally yields higher earnings. In this study, the authors ask: Does that observation extend to other nonpecuniary rewards in the workplace? Using data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers, results suggest it does—but there are some social status contingencies. In particular, the benefits of higher levels of job authority for job autonomy, challenging work, and income are stronger among men compared to women. By contrast, no age-based contingencies are observed. Collectively, observations about job authority’s bundling with other rewards elaborate on the claim that job authority is a “highly coveted workplace resource”—but the degree of these payoffs differs for men and women.

Read the full article here.

PhD Candidate Athena Engman, Professor Shyon Baumann, and Professor Josée Johnston on Political Consumption, Conventional Politics, and High Cultural Consumption

Athena Engman

PhD Candidate Athena Engman, Professor Shyon Baumann, and Professor Josée Johnston published an article in the International Journal of Consumer Studies. The article analyzes political consumption (referring to consumption that supports a political or ethical position) and its relationship with conventional forms of politics. The authors find that, contrary to earlier arguments, political consumption has not replaced conventional political behaviour and that those who engage in the practice of political consumption are actually more likely to engage in political activism.

Athena Engman is a PhD Candidate at the University of Toronto studying epistemology, philosophy of mind, and medical sociology. Her thesis probes the experiences of organ transplant recipients. Shyon Baumann is a Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto Mississauga. His research focuses on questions of evaluation, legitimacy, status, cultural schemas, and inequality. Josée Johnston is a Professor of Sociology at University of Toronto Mississauga. Her general research goal is to advance knowledge in the sociological study of food and consumer culture.

We have posted the citation and the abstract of the article below. The full text is available through the University of Toronto Library Portal here.

Baumann, Shyon, Athena Engman, and Josée Johnston. 2015. “Political Consumption, Conventional Politics, and High Cultural Capital.” International Journal of Consumer Studies 39(5):413-421.

This article advances our knowledge of how political consumption is related to conventional forms of politics. Using survey data collected in Toronto in 2011, we examine how different kinds of political consumption are related to a range of conventional political behaviours. We find that, contrary to pessimistic views, political consumption is strongly correlated with conventional political behaviours. We do not find evidence for a crowding out or substitution effect of political consumption on conventional political behaviours. However, our findings suggest that political consumption is an individualized and relatively exclusive form of consumption, with demographic correlates that resemble other forms of high status cultural consumption and potentially limit its breadth.

Read the full article here.