Prof. Melissa Milkie was recently featured in new article “More Men Helped With Housework During The Early Days Of COVID-19. What Went Wrong?” in the Huffington Post

Professor Melissa Milkie was featured in an article in the Huffington Post.  More Men Helped With Housework During The Early Days Of COVID-19. What Went Wrong? by Brittany Wong looks at how divisions of labour in the home were initially equalizing during the first wave of the ongoing pandemic but the initial increase in men’s participation and responsibilities within the family were short lived.

Professor Melissa Milkie is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto, Mississauga campus (UTM). She is the Chair of the Tri-Campus Graduate Department. Her research focuses on culture, the work-family interface, and mental health.

We’ve included an excerpt of the article below. Read the full article on the Huffington Post here.

More Men Helped With Housework During The Early Days Of COVID-19. What Went Wrong?

Men stepped up during the first wave, and then backslid. Here’s how to reengage them, according to couples therapists.

Article after article tells us that moms across America are utterly exhausted. Some have lost their jobs because of the pandemic, others are trying to balance work and supervising kids doing remote learning. Most are doing it with little to no support.

But men were chipping in when it came to housework and child care tasks ― at least in the first wave of the lockdown, according to a new study.

“Our findings based on data from very early in the pandemic show that if fathers are in the home more and work allows them to be flexible, they are more likely to be able to step up to the kinds of demands that families have,” said Melissa Milkie, the lead author of the study and a sociology professor at the University of Toronto Mississauga.

Milkie and her team conducted the study last May in the midst of the first wave of coronavirus-related lockdowns. Their research took into account the responses of 1,234 male-female couples across Canada with at least one child. (It’s worth noting that Canada offers far more parental support to its citizens.)

Both men and women reported that dads were stepping up. The biggest gains appeared in organizing and planning children’s activities: Before the outbreak, 46% of respondents said this was an equally shared task or that fathers did more than mothers. Afterward, 57% said this was the case.

Respondents reported smaller increases in fathers monitoring kids at school, reading, talking and listening to them, and physical care.

But somewhere along the line, things changed. As your exhausted working mom friends have probably told you, far too many men seem to have stepped back and let their wives again take on the lion’s share of the parenting and household responsibilities.

Congratulations Professor Melissa Milkie! – 2021 President of the Work and Family Researchers Network

Melissa MilkieCongratulations to Professor Melissa Milkie who was recently elected as President of the Work and Family Researchers Network (WFRN) for the 2021-2022 year. The WFRN seeks to connect academics who research interactions between work and the family from around the globe, facilitating collaboration and conversation while also engaging with and encouraging future work and family scholars. The WFRN also encourages policy makers and industry professionals to engage with the work of researchers in the network, promoting knowledge and understanding of work and family issues. Professor Milkie has served on the WFRN Executive Committees during 2019 and 2020, and we wish her the best in her new role as President!

Professor Melissa Milkie is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto, with teaching responsibilities on the UT Mississauga (UTM) campus. She is the Chair of the Tri-Campus Graduate Department. Her research focuses on culture, the work-family interface, and mental health.

Check out the latest news from the WFRN here.

Professor Melissa Milkie on Canadian fathers and housework and child care

Professor Melissa Milkie recently co-wrote an article in The Conversation discussing the shift in housework amid the COVID-19 pandemic. She and her co-investigators have found that fathers have begun to do a greater share of the housework and complete more parental tasks at home than they had done before the pandemic.

Professor Melissa Milkie is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto, with teaching responsibilities on the UT Mississauga (UTM) campus. She is the Chair of the Tri-Campus Graduate Department. Her research focuses on culture, the work-family interface, and mental health.

We have posted an excerpt of the article below. The full story is available on the website here.

Canadian dads are doing more at home than before the coronavirus pandemic

July 21, 2020 2.56pm EDT

Authors: Kevin Shafer / Casey Scheibling /

Over the past few months, everyday housework, like cooking and washing dishes, has multiplied and most parents have become responsible for teaching their kids. Given the uneven distribution of these tasks before the pandemic, much of this extra work has fallen squarely on mothers.

Our work looks at trends in housework and child care during the early stages of the pandemic in Canada as one way to measure how it might disproportionately harm women.

Housework and child care are important markers of equity for a few reasons. Family responsibilities often default to mothers, negatively impacting their career and economic opportunities. Women’s physical and mental health is linked to how equally partners share family-related tasks. Romantic relationship quality and stability are also tied to perceptions of equity in housework and child care.

Housework and child care

We surveyed nearly 1,250 Canadian mothers and fathers about family and work arrangements before and during the pandemic. Because of the substantial gender gaps in housework and child care before COVID-19, we looked at the perception of how much domestic work Canadian fathers were doing immediately before the pandemic in May 2020, about a month and a half after public health orders took effect.

When it came to preparing meals, cleaning and shopping for essentials, a small proportion of men were perceived as reducing their portion, most did about the same and a sizeable minority increased their share. Indeed, in the central tasks of preparing meals, doing dishes and housecleaning, about twice as many men increased their share as decreased it…

…Persistent inequality in domestic labour has many sources — all of which could be amplified during the pandemic. Gender pay gaps, particularly among parents, often cause families to privilege the careers of fathers over mothers. Societal expectations and the lack of policy supports, like access to affordable child care, pressure many women to reduce their hours or quit working in order to care for young children.

Read the full article…

Professor Melissa Milkie on ‘The pressure cooker’ of working from home and homeschooling

The UTM Research News recently published an interview with Professor Melissa Milkie about the difficulties of balancing work and family life. Professor Milkie is a Full Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Tri-Campus Graduate Department. Her research studies gender & family, the work-family interface, culture, and mental health.

We have posted an excerpt of the article below and the full article is available on the UTM News website here.

‘The pressure cooker’ of working from home and homeschooling: A sense of humour may get us through

Friday, April 24, 2020 – 9:04am
Laurie Wallace Lynch

We’ve all no doubt seen the video that went viral where Professor Robert Kelly was at home in South Korea, being interviewed live on BBC News when suddenly his two young children wander into the room, followed by their frantic mother who tries to quickly grab them. This scenario can happen readily during the COVID-19 crisis when many parents are working from home, providing 24/7 childcare and homeschooling. But fear not, a sense of humour and involving children can make people see and appreciate the hard work parents do every single day.

That’s according to U of T Mississauga sociology Professor Melissa Milkie, who has done extensive research on family dynamics and gender. Though some “hero” parents are on the front lines working in essential jobs outside the home, others are contending with a strange collision of their work and family lives.

“What is happening now is not so much the juggling of the two roles of parent and worker, but a complete explosion of how we normally spend our time—and where we spend it—now that everything is under one (sometimes very small) roof,” says Milkie. “But some pressures may be relieved by knowing we are all in this together.”

Read more…

Professor Melissa Milkie talks to CNN about Millenial women and household labour

Professor Melissa Milkie spoke to CNN about gender and household work. As women contribute to household income more than ever before, they are still also doing the majority of the unpaid domestic work. According to Professor Milkie, although both men and women are working more paid hours than previous generations, women are also contributing many more hours of unpaid, domestic work to their households and have fewer leisure hours.

Professor Milkie is a professor of sociology with teaching duties at the UTM campus, and chair of the Graduate Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto. Her research focuses on culture, gender and family, health, and the intersections between work and family. Her work has been published in academic journals such as Social Forces, Society and Mental Health and the American Sociological Review.

The full article can be viewed here. We have posted an excerpt below.

Younger women are working longer hours and earning more than ever before. But they’re still carrying more of the burden at home.

While millennial households are more likely to adopt egalitarian views about gender, reporting they want to split household duties and income equally, research shows those promises often collapse under the weight of long-held gender stereotypes.
On an average day, 19% of men reported doing housework like laundry, cleaning and other tasks, compared to 49% of women. Women also spend more time every day doing these tasks, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics
…Yet as women contribute more to household income, they’re still also doing the majority of the unpaid domestic work. Some researchers have pointed to this as a “stall” in the gender revolution, says Melissa Milkie, professor of sociology at the University of Toronto.
“When we talk about things like the wage gap, it’s often not linked to what’s happening in the home, and I think it needs to be, because of that unpaid labor that’s really a central part of people’s work-life balancing,” Milkie says. “With women, the cost is borne in their career or their wages when they’re doing more in the home.”
Young adult men are working slightly more, too. But men also spend more time than women exercising, playing games and enjoying other leisure activities, according to the US Department of Labor.

Professor Melissa Milkie on housework and gender norms

Melissa MilkieSociology Professor Melissa Milkie was recently featured in an article by The Toronto Star discussing the gender roles and expectations around household work. The article reported on the persistence of a gendered division of household chores and the guilt many women feel when they do not live up to their own housework standards. In explaining the guilt, Professor Milkie pointed to strong cultural gender norms. Professor Milkie is the chair of the Graduate Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto. Her research focuses on culture, gender and family, the intersections between work and family, and health. Her research has used time use studies to analyze the division of household labour.

We have posted an excerpt of the article below.

Household chores still a source of guilt for some women

Brandie Weikle | Dec. 14, 2017

…I became curious about the mixed feelings women report on this issue when I posted a recommendation on Facebook recently for a cleaning service I had just started using.

This simple little review elicited a surprising amount of response — interestingly, all of it from women. Some of that feedback indicated that, in addition to doing a declining but still disproportionate amount of household chores (3.6 hours daily on unpaid household tasks compared to 2.4 hours for men, according to Statistics Canada’s most recent Time Use Survey), women still take on an extra helping of guilt when they can’t keep up.

Melissa Milkie, a professor of sociology at the University of Toronto Mississauga whose work centres around gender and family, says that’s because our culture still has “strong and ‘stuck’ norms of femininity and masculinity,” despite the fact women are more likely than ever to work outside the home.

“Employed women continue to be held to high, sometimes impossible standards of a warm, welcoming, organized, clean and beautiful home,” says Milkie.

Sure, plenty of women I know, mostly middle-class professional moms, say they’ve happily embraced using a cleaning service and easily see the logic in outsourcing lower-paying tasks so they can devote more time to higher-paying tasks or free up hours to spend with their families. So do their male partners, who also don’t want to spend the entire weekend cleaning. But many women still trip over deeply ingrained messages that it’s indulgent to get someone else to do some of your dirty work…

Read the full article here.

U of T at the ASA

This year, 22 faculty members and 25 graduate students from Sociology at the University of Toronto are presenting papers at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociology Association in Montreal. In addition to the people presenting papers, a number of our community are also participating as session organizers, discussants or journal editorial panel members. The meetings happen between August 12th and August 15th. We have listed the papers we’re presenting below in the order of their occurrence, with student presenters shown in italics. Note that some of the papers have unlisted co-authors from other universities. Please refer to the ASA Program for complete information.

Saturday, August 12th

Bill Magee, Optimistic Positivity and Pessimistic Negativity Among American Adults: Effects of Birth-Cohort, Age, Gender, and Race

Jaime Nikolaou, Teen Pregnancy and Doula Care: A Space for Feminist Praxis?

Andrew Nevin, Technological Tethering, Cohort Effects, and the Work-Family Interface

Andreea Mogosanu, Historical Change in Gender Differences in Mastery: The Role of Education and Employment

Ioana Sendroiu and Laura Upenieks, Gender ‘In Practice’: Rethinking the Use of Male Practice Players in NCAA Women’s Basketball

Emine Fidan Elcioglu, The State Effect at the Border: Avoiding Totalizing Theories of Political Power in Migration Studies

Paul Pritchard, A Bifurcated Welcome? Examining the Willingness to Include Seasonal Agricultural Workers in the Host Community

Yukiko Tanaka, Managing Risk, Pursuing Opportunities: Immigration, Citizenship, and Security in Canada

Gordon Brett, Feminist Theory and Embodied Cognition: Bridging the Disciplinary Gap

Mitch McGivor, Inequality in Higher Education: Student Debt, Social Background, and Labour Market Outcomes

Sarah Cappeliez, Wine Nerds and Pleasure-seekers: Understanding Wine Taste Formation and Practice

Katelin Albert, Negotiating State Policy in the Improvised Classroom: An Ethnographic Inquiry into Sexual Health Classrooms

Marie-Lise Drappon-Bisson, Tactical Reproduction in the Pro-Choice Movement in Northern Ireland: Alliance for Choice’s Path Towards Successful Tactics

Milos Brocic, Cultivating Conviction or Negotiating Nuance? Assessing the Impact of Associations on Ideological Polarization

Omar Faruque, Neoliberal Development, Privatizing Nature, and Subaltern Resistance in Bangladesh

Sunday, August 13th

Dan Silver, The Political Order of the City: Neighborhoods and Voting in Toronto, 1997-2014

Andreea Mogosanu and Laura Upenieks, Social Change and the Evolution of Gender Differences in Depression: An Age-Cohort Consideration

Markus Schafer, Religious Attendance Heterogamy and Partnership Quality in Later Life

Atsushi Narisada, Buffering-Resource or Status-Disconfirmation? How Socioeconomic Status Shapes the Relationship between Perceived Under-Reward and Distress

Josee Johnston, On (not) Knowing Where Your Food Comes From: Children, Meat, and Ethical Eating

Ann Mullen, Labored Meanings: Contemporary Artists and the Process and Problems of Producing Artistic Meaning

Lawrence Williams, Dilemmas: Where No Schema Has Gone Before

Patricia Landolt, How Does Multicultural Canada’s Ethnicizing Imperative Shape Latin American Political Incorporation?

Merin Oleschuk, Consuming the Family Meal: News Media Constructions of Home Cooking and Health

Sarah Shah, The Context of Birth Country Gender Inequality on Mental Health Outcomes of Intimate Partner Violence

Louise Birsell-Bauer, Precarious Professionals: Gender Relations in the Academic Profession and the Feminization of Employment Norms

Geoff Wodtke, Regression-based Adjustment for Time-varying Confounders

Monday, August 14th

Markus Schafer, The Role of Health in Late Life Social Inclusion and Exclusion

Kim Pernell, Institutionalized Meaning and Policymaking: Revisiting the Causes of American Financial Deregulation

Cynthia Guzman, Revisiting the Feminist Theory of the State

Akwasi Owusu-Bempah, Policing Race, Moral Panic and the Growth of Black Prisoners in Canada

David Pettinicchio, Beyond Employment Inequality: Wealth Disparities by Disability Status in Canada and the United States

Yangsook Kim, Good Care in the Elderly Care Sector of South Korea: Gendered Immigration and Ethnic Boundaries

Ioana Sendroiu and Ron Levi, Legality and Exclusion: Discrimination, Legal Cynicism and System Avoidance across the European Roma Experience

Lawrence Williams, Bounded Reflexivity: How Expectations Shape Careers

Irene Boeckmann, Contested Hegemony: Fatherhood Wage Effects across Two U.S. Birth Cohorts

Jennifer Chun and Cynthia Cranford, Becoming Homecare Workers: Chinese Immigrant Women in California’s Oakland Chinatown

Katelin Albert and Steve G. Hoffman, Undone Science and Canadian Health Research

Ronit Dinovitzer, The New Place of Corporate Law Firms in the Structuring of Elite Legal Careers

Melissa Milkie and Scott Schieman, Who Helps with the Homework? Inequity in Parenting Responsibilities and Relationship Quality among Employed Parents

Matthew Parbst, The Impact of Public Opinion on Policy in Cross-National Perspective

Tony Zhang, The Princelings in China: How Do They Benefit from their Red Parents?

Rania Salem, Structural Accommodations of Classic Patriarchy: Women and Workplace Gender Segregation in Qatar

Tuesday, August 15th

Patricia Louie and Blair Wheaton, Revisiting the Black-White Paradox in Mental Disorder in Three Cohorts of Black and White Americans

Jenna Valleriani, Breaking the law for the greater good? Core-stigmatized Organizations and Medical Cannabis Dispensaries in Canada

Martin Lukk, What Kind of Writing is Sociology? Literary Form and Theoretical Integration in the Human Sciences

Jerry Flores, Gender on the Run: Wanted Latinas in a southern California Barrio

Jean-Francois Nault, Determinants of Linguistic Retention: The Case of Ontario’s Francophone Official-Language Minorities

Luisa Farah Schwartzmann, Color Violence, Deadly Geographies and the Meanings of “Race” in Brazil

Jonathan Koltai and Scott Schieman, Financial Strain, Mastery, and Psychological Distress: A Comment on Spuriousness in the Stress Process




3 Sociology professors look into parenting stress experienced by Syrian refugees

Melissa MilkieNeda MaghboulehIto PengWith fully 60 percent of Canada’s recent influx of Syrian refugees being under the age of 15, this group is largely composed of children and the adults who care for them. The parents or primary caregivers of these children face both the enormous tasks involved in acclimatizing themselves to a new culture and environment and the strains linked to the financial support, schooling, and care of children. Funded by SSHRC as part of a special call for research into the experiences of the Syrian refugees, research by Professors Melissa Milkie, Neda Maghbouleh and Ito Peng seeks to understand the parenting stress that these new Canadians experience.

The three professors recently presented some of the early findings at the Metropolis conference in Montreal. Reporting on 43 wave 1 interviews, preliminary findings show three major stressors that Syrian refugee mothers experience. First, a major stressor for most Syrian refugee mothers upon resettlement is the crystallization of deep losses – such as the separation from close family members like their own parents, who are unable, unwilling or are not chosen to be resettled in Canada. The extended family is thus not able to support mothers in the ways they may have in the past. Second, school stressors exist for some families, but are relatively minor and most often solved readily; and/or resources to solve school concerns are clear. Finally, although mothers feel a sense of mastery in their successful creation of physical safety for their children, they experience a powerful cultural stressor in their lack of control over their children’s distant but impending adulthood in a new land with different cultural standards and norms.

They will be presenting an invited panel at the Canadian Sociological Association meeting on May 31st.

Professor Boeckmann and Milkie interviewed for story on working at home

Melissa MilkieIrene BoeckmannToronto’s Metro News recently interviewed both Professor Irene Boeckmann and Professor Melissa Milkie in a story about working at home. The story starts with a reference to a recent viral video of a dad being interrupted by his children during a BBC skype interview and goes on to discuss working from home. The full story is available here . Below is an excerpt:

Work-from-home parents more likely to be women: Experts

Experience of dad who went viral during BBC interview common for women who work from home while caring for young children.

If you spent more than a nanosecond online over the weekend, you probably saw the video of a toddler bombing her dad as he’s giving a live Skype interview with BBC News.

You also probably laughed out loud as the little girl bounced into her father’s home office, followed by a younger sibling in a walker, then their panicked mother who drags the kids out of the room. But for those working from home, that comedy of errors is all too familiar.

With many workplaces offering little flexibility as to when and where parents can work, and daycare costs continuing to rise, more parents are choosing to leave their careers to carve out new paths as freelancers or entrepreneurs.

More often than not it’s women, not men, who are entering this new fray: not quite stay-at-home moms, not quite working moms, but some sort of hybrid version of both.

Irene Boekmann, assistant professor in the department of sociology at the University of Toronto, says children are a big driving factor forcing women from work, and that this doesn’t tend to be the case for fathers.

“There is definitely an interesting gendered story here,” she said, pointing out that mothers with younger children are more likely to work from home than other women. “Research shows that children increase Canadian women’s (but not men’s) likelihood of self-employment.”

U of T at the 2016 ASA

University of Toronto Sociology at the Annual Meeting of the 2016 American Sociological Association

Our Sociology faculty members and graduate students are very active with the American Sociological Association, with over 60 of them appearing in this year’s program either as presented or an organizer of a panel. See the program for more information. Here are some of the highlights:

Saturday, August 20

Irene Boeckmann

Fatherhood and Breadwinning: Race and Class Differences in First-time Fathers’ Long-term Employment Patterns

Monica Boyd; Naomi Lightman

Gender, Nativity and Race in Care Work: The More Things Change….

Clayton Childress

I Don’t Make Objects, I Make Projects: Selling Things and Selling Selves in Contemporary Art-making

Jennifer Jihye Chun

Globalizing the Grassroots: Care Worker Organizing and the Redefinition of 21st Century Labour Politics

Paulina Garcia del Moral

Feminicidio, Transnational Human Rights Advocacy and Transnational Legal Activism

Phil Goodman

Conservative Politics, Sacred Crows, and Sacrificial Lambs: The Role of ‘Evidence’ During Canada’s Prison Farm Closures

Josee Johnston

Spitting that Real vs. Keeping It Misogynistic: Hip-Hop, Class, and Masculinity in New Food Media

Andrew Miles

Measuring Automatic Cognition: Practical Advances for Sociological Research Using Dual-process Models

Atsushi Narisada

Palatable Unjust Desserts: How Procedural Justice Weakens the Pain of Perceived Pay Inequity

David Nicholas Pettinicchio

The Universalizing Effects of Unionism: Policy, Inequality and Disability

Markus H. Schafer

Social Networks and Mastery after Driving Cessation: A Gendered Life Course Approach

Lawrence Hamilton Williams

Active Intuition: The Patterned Spontaneity of Decision-making


Sunday, August 21

Sida Liu

The Elastic Ceiling: Gender and Professional Career in Chinese Courts

Jonathan Tomas Koltai; Scott Schieman; Ronit Dinovitzer

Status-based Stress Exposure and Well-being in the Legal Profession

Andrew Miles

Turf Wars of Truly Understanding Culture? Moving Beyond Isolation and Importation to Genuine Cross-disciplinary Engagement

Melissa A. Milkie

Time Deficits with Children: The Relationship to Mothers’ and Fathers’ Mental and Physical Health

Diana Lee Miller

Sustainable and Unsustainable Semi-Professionalism: Grassroots Music Careers in Folk and Metal

Ito Peng

Care and Migration Policies in Japan and South Korea

Scott Schieman; Atsushi Narisada

Under-rewarded Boss: Gender, Workplace Power, and the Distress of Perceived Pay Inequity


Monday, August 22

Salina Abji

Because Deportation is Violence Against Women: On the Politics of State Responsibility and Women’s Human Rights

Holly Campeau

The Right Way, the Wrong Way, and the Blueville War: Policing, Standards, and Cultural Match

Bahar Hashemi

Canadian Newspaper Representations of Family violence among Immigrant Communities: Analyzing Shifts Over Time

Vanina Leschziner

The American Fame Game: Academic Status and Public Renown in Post-war Social Sciences

Ron Levi; Ioana Vladescu

The Structure of Claims after Atrocity: Justifications, Values, and Proposals from the Holocaust Swiss Banks Litigation

Patricia Louie

Whose Body Matters? Representations of Race and Skin Colour in Medical Textbooks

William Magee; Laura Upenieks

Supervisory Level and Anger About Work

Maria M. Majerski

The Economic Integration of Immigrants: Social Networks, Social Capital, and the Impact of Gender

Melissa A. Milkie

You Must Work Hard: Changes in U.S. Adults’ Values for Children 1986-2012

Jean-Francois Nault

Education, Religion, and Identity in French Ontario: A Case Study of French-language Catholic School Choice

Merin Oleschuk; Blair Wheaton

The Relevance of Women’s Income on Household Gender Inequality Across Class and National Context

David Nicholas Pettinicchio

Punctuated Incrementalism: How American Disability Rights Policymaking Sheds Light on Institutional Continuity and Change


Tuesday, Aug. 23

Katelin Albert

Making the Classroom, Making Sex Ed: A School-based Ethnography of Ontario’s Sexual Health Classrooms

Catherine Man Chuen Cheng

Constructing Immigrant Citizen-subjects in Exceptional States: Governmentality and Chinese Marriage Migrants in Taiwan and HongKong

Hae Yeon Choo

Maternal Guardians: Intimate Labor, Migration, and the Pursuit of Gendered Citizenship in South Korea

Bonnie H. Erickson

Multiple Pathways to Ethnic Social Capitals

  1. Omar Faruque

Confronting Capital: The Limits of Transnational Activism and Human Rights-based CSR Initiatives

Elise Maiolino

I’m not Male, not White, Want to Start There?: Identity Work in Toronto’s Mayoral Election

Jaime Nikolaou

Commemorating Morgentaler? Reflections on Movement Leadership, 25 Years Later

Kristie O’Neill

Traditional Beneficiaries: Trade Bans, Exemptions, and Morality Embodied in Diets

Matthew Parbst; Blair Wheaton

The Buffering Role of the Welfare State on SES differences in Depression

Luisa Farah Schwartzman

Brazilian Lives Matter, and what Race and the United States Got to do With it

Daniel Silver

Visual Social Thought

Laura Upenieks

Beyond America? Cross-national Contexts and Religious versus Secular Membership Effects on Self-rated Health

Barry Wellman

Older Adults Networking On and Off Digital Media: Initial Findings from the Fourth East York Study

Blair Wheaton; Patricia Joy Louie

A New Perspective on Maternal Employment and Child Mental Health: A Cautionary Tale

Tony Huiquan Zhang

Weather Effects on Social Movements: Evidence from Washington D.C. and New York City, 1960-1995